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power plants can operate 24 hours per day, providing base-load
capacity, and the world potential capacity for geothermal power
generation is estimated at 85 GW over the next 30 years. However,
geothermal power is accessible only in limited areas of the
world, including the United States, Central America, Indonesia,
East Africa and the Philippines.
Markets for second-generation technologies are strong and growing,
but only in a few countries. The challenge is to broaden the
market base for continued growth worldwide. Strategic deployment
in one country not only reduces technology costs for users there,
but also for those in other countries, contributing to overall
cost reductions and performance improvement.
heating systems are a well known second-generation technology
and generally consist of solar thermal collectors, a fluid system
to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage, and
a reservoir or tank for heat storage and subsequent use. The
systems may be used to heat domestic hot water, swimming pool
water, or for space heating. The heat can also be used for industrial
applications or as an energy input for other uses such as cooling
many climates, a solar heating system can provide a very high
percentage (50 to 75%) of domestic hot water energy. Energy
received from the sun by the earth is that of electromagnetic
radiation. Light ranges of visible, infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays,
and radio waves received by the earth through solar energy.
The highest power of radiation comes from visible light. Solar
power is complicated due to changes in seasons and from day
to night. Cloud cover can also add to complications of solar
energy, and not all radiation from the sun reaches earth because
it is absorbed and dispersed due to clouds and gases within
the earth's atmospheres.
the 1980s and early 1990s, most photovoltaic modules provided
Remote Area Power Supply, but from around 1995, industry efforts
have focused increasingly on developing building integrated
photovoltaics and power plants for grid connected applications.
Currently the largest photovoltaic power plant in North America
is the Nellis Solar Power Plant
(15 MW). There is a proposal to build a Solar
power station in Victoria, Australia, which would be
the world's largest PV power station, at 154 MW.  Other
large photovoltaic power stations include the Girassol
solar power plant (62 MW), and the Waldpolenz
Solar Park (40 MW).
of the second-generation renewables, such as wind power, have
high potential and have already realised relatively low production
costs. At the end of 2008, worldwide wind farm capacity was
120,791 megawatts (MW), representing an increase of 28.8 percent
during the year, and wind power produced some 1.3% of global
electricity consumption. Wind power accounts for approximately
20% of electricity use in Denmark, 9% in Spain, and 7% in Germany.
However, it may be difficult to site wind turbines in some areas
for aesthetic or environmental reasons, and it may be difficult
to integrate wind power into electricity grids in some cases.