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thermal power stations have been successfully operating in California
commercially since the late 1980s, including the largest solar
power plant of any kind, the 350 MW Solar Energy Generating
Systems. Nevada Solar One is another 64MW plant which has recently
opened. Other parabolic trough power plants being proposed
are two 50MW plants in Spain, and a 100MW plant in Israel.
Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the
world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane,
and ethanol now provides 18 percent of the country's automotive
MIT's Solar House #1 built in 1939
used seasonal thermal storage for year round heating. Third-generation
technologies are not yet widely demonstrated or commercialised.
They are on the horizon and may have potential comparable to
other renewable energy technologies, but still depend on attracting
sufficient attention and RD&D funding. These newest technologies
include advanced biomass gasification,biorefinery technologies,
solar thermal power stations, hot dry rock geothermal energy,
to the International Energy Agency,
new bioenergy (biofuel) technologies being developed today,
notably cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, could allow biofuels
to play a much bigger role in the future than previously thought.
Cellulosic ethanol can be made from plant matter composed primarily
of inedible cellulose fibers that form the stems and branches
of most plants.
residues (such as corn stalks, wheat straw and rice straw),
wood waste, and municipal solid waste are potential sources
of cellulosic biomass. Dedicated energy crops, such as switchgrass,
are also promising cellulose sources that can be sustainably
produced in many regions of the United States.
terms of Ocean energy, another third-generation technology,
Portugal has the world's first commercial wave farm, the Aguçadora
Wave Park, under construction in 2007. The farm will
initially use three Pelmis P-750 machines generating 2.25 MW
and costs are put at 8.5 million euro. Subject to successful
operation, a further 70 million euro is likely to be invested
before 2009 on a further 28 machines to generate 525 MW.
for a wave farm in Scotland was
announced in February, 2007 by the Scottish Executive, at a
cost of over 4 million pounds, as part of a £13 million
funding packages for ocean power in Scotland. The farm will
be the world's largest with a capacity of 3 MW generated by
four Pelamis machines.